Flex Talk: Mina—Trouble-Free Soldering to Aluminum

I always love to hear about interesting new IoT applications. The other day, a friend was explaining a new product he had recently developed, a home-built RFID-based tracking algorithm used to help improve and change how conferences and events are done around the world. Essentially, this tracking system—enabled by RFID tags and card readers—allows event organizers to analyze attendees’ preferences and interests and create personalized recommendations on topics, somewhat like a Netflix recommendation engine. Thinking about the RFID market and the significant growth projected in this market, I decided to do a little research on RFID tag manufacturing. During this research, I learned of a relatively new offering, Mina, an advanced surface treatment technology that addresses the common constraints of large scale manufacturing of Al-PET circuits.

Aluminum on polyester (Al-PET) circuits are becoming more popular and have found wide use in RFID tag and single-layer circuits to reduce cost. However, both aluminum and PET have their own constraints and require special processing to make finished circuits. Aluminum is not easy to solder to at lower temperatures and PET cannot withstand high temperatures. Conventional low-temperature solder cannot be used to attach components to these circuits without additional processing or using conductive epoxies. These add costs, which limit the use of Al-PET circuits. Initially developed to help a customer with a manufacturing cost issue, Averatek has recently developed Mina, which can be applied to the antenna as it is being manufactured on high-speed roll-to-roll lines. The antenna can then be sent to customers who assemble the die and then on to the tag makers. This relatively new surface treatment paves the way for large scale, low cost manufacturing of Al-PET circuits.

Conventional Methods to Assemble RFIDs

Assembly of RFID tags involves mounting of chips onto the pads of the circuit. Although the use of solder is preferred, soldering to aluminum is difficult because of the presence of a thin layer of aluminum oxide. This layer forms when the bare metal is exposed to air. Since the manufacturing of Al-PET substrates is done in atmospheric conditions, all aluminum surfaces are covered with aluminum oxide. While the formation of oxide is self-limiting, its presence prevents the bonding of solder to the base aluminum. 

Special processing can be done on pads to remove and prevent the formation of aluminum oxide. These include ENIG, nickel-palladium or nickel-silver plating. These need a series of process steps and extensive wet chemistry, which add costs that make it prohibitive for mass production. 

Anisotropic conductive paste (ACP) is a common solution to this problem and is widely used for attaching components to aluminum based RFIDs. It is applied on the face of the chip, which is then attached to the antenna using heat and pressure. However, ACP has its own challenges. It is made of adhesive epoxy filled with conductive metal particles, usually silver. These are typically syringe applied, require longer cure times, have pot-life issues and are electrically inferior to conventional solders. In addition, they must be stored at low temperatures in special freezers to control the polymerization of the epoxy. 

Assembly of RFIDs with Mina

Evaluations began last November for Mina. This surface treatment can be printed directly on the aluminum pads where components need to be assembled. Any of the conventional printing techniques can be used including screen, stencil, etc. The aluminum surface does not need any surface cleaning or preparation. Once printed, it is then thermally cured and leaves the pad surface active and ready to accept solder. Cured Mina is non-conductive and makes room for easy printing registration. To attach a component, it simply would need solder on it via plated bumps or printing, placed on a Mina activated pad, and then passed through a re-flow oven. Mina removes the aluminum oxide layer and allows the formation of a true metal-to-metal bond between the solder and the aluminum on the pads.  Both the electrical properties and the bond strength are better than ACP. In addition, Mina can be stored at room temperature and reused multiple times. 

Dunn_Fig1.jpg 

Figure 1: Production and assembly process using Mina.

Dunn_Fig2.jpg 

Figure 2: Graphic of Mina application.

Benefits of Mina

  • Screen-printed on pads leaving an active, but non-conductive surface
  • Cost-effective as it allows the use of conventional solder and only on pads
  • Mina can be applied to the pads and cured in a conventional, low-temperature oven
  • Solder can be plated or printed on the chip using conventional methods and then reflowed onto the active pads
  • Enables solder to bond directly to aluminum metal, ensuring good electrical properties
  • Has no pot-life issues; Mina can be printed, stored and re-used at room temperature

Given the significant growth projected for the RFID tag market in the next several years, it will be interesting to see how this relatively new advanced surface treatment is adopted into mass production and to see what other markets benefit from enabling the ease of soldering to aluminum. 

 

Tara Dunn is the president of Omni PCB, a manufacturer’s rep firm specializing in the printed circuit board industry. To read past columns or to contact Dunn, click here.

Back

2017

Flex Talk: Mina—Trouble-Free Soldering to Aluminum

06-22-2017

Thinking about the RFID market and the significant growth projected in this market, I decided to do a little research on RFID tag manufacturing. During this research, I learned of a relatively new offering, Mina, an advanced surface treatment technology that addresses the common constraints of large scale manufacturing of Al-PET circuits.

View Story

Flex Talk: Squink—Integrating Fabrication and Assembly in one Package

05-01-2017

When walking through trade show expos, I tend to be drawn into product demonstrations on the show floor. Recently, at the IPC APEX EXPO, I stopped in front of a piece of desktop printing equipment that was demonstrating with a flexible circuit.

View Story

Flex Talk: Flex Material Handling—An Inside Peek

04-03-2017

As increasingly more designs move to flexible materials to take advantage of space, weight or packaging benefits, it has been clear that flexible circuits require a different set of rules than their rigid counterparts. We spend substantial time working through the design to ensure that he flex is as robust as possible.

View Story

Flex Talk: Final Surface Finish—How Do You Choose?

01-26-2017

There are so many final surface finish options to choose from today. How do you decide which is best? HASL—both tin-lead and lead-free—immersion tin, immersion silver, ENIG, OSP, and ENIPIG are the primary finishes used in PCB fabrication.

View Story
Back

2016

Flex Talk: A Glimpse into PCB Sales

12-28-2016

Summarizing the feedback from both customers and manufacturers, the most successful PCB salespeople are organized, take a genuine interest in their customers’ needs and business challenges, have a better than average understanding of the PCB industry, fully understand the manufacturer’s strengths and capabilities and advocate for both to find the best solution.

View Story

Flex Talk: Troubleshooting Flex Circuit Applications for Mil/Aero Projects

10-06-2016

I imagine that everyone has been in this position at one time or another: Despite everyone’s best attempt at creating the perfect design, PCB fabrication and assembly, something goes wrong and the troubleshooting begins.

View Story

Flex Talk: Inaugural West Coast Geek-A-Palooza a Fun-filled Success

05-24-2016

Geek-A-Palooza kicked off the 2016 schedule May 12 in Irvine, California. Historically, Geek-A-Palooza has been held in Minneapolis but is expanding this year to include Orange County and Boston as well.

View Story

Flex Talk: PCB Sourcing? One Size Does Not Fit All

04-18-2016

When analyzing a set of PCBs to improve yields and maximize profits, the first place to start is with a critical review of each PCB design. Are there any attributes that are pushing your manufacturer’s standard design rules? If so, is this necessary to the design or is there another approach that could improve the manufacturer’s yields, reduce cost, and ultimately increase profit?

View Story
Back

2015

Flex Talk: Thoughts on the IPC Flexible Circuits–HDI Forum

11-19-2015

As an attendee at the IPC Flexible Circuits–HDI Conference held October 28–30, I found myself in a room of people, all eager for technical information, with the opportunity to reconnect with industry friends and to make new connections. The audience was diverse with young people, new to our industry, sitting alongside industry veterans willingly sharing their knowledge and passion for HDI design and flexible circuit technology.

View Story

Designing Flex Circuits for Domestic Prototyping

08-20-2015

Designing a flex circuit to be prototyped domestically? No problem. Designing a rigid-flex circuit for production offshore? Got it. Designing a part that will be prototyped domestically with a seamless transition to offshore production? That can be a little more challenging.

View Story

Rigid Flex: Total Cost Comparison

07-09-2015

The transition to a rigid-flex design from the traditional approach of using cable assemblies to join two or more PCBs has obvious benefits—space, weight, packaging, reliability and increased currently carrying capabilities. Yet many times the perception that rigid-flex is a high-cost solution causes designers and engineers to hesitate.

View Story

Primary Cost Drivers for Flex Circuit Designs

06-25-2015

Someone once told me that the potential applications for flexible circuits are really only limited by our imaginations. After pondering that a bit, I had to agree. In fact, one of the things I like best about what I do is that moment during a discussion when I can see the light bulb go off in a designer's head.

View Story

The Flex-to-Fit Approach

06-04-2015

The flex-to-fit concept reminds us that creativity and engineering go hand-in-hand. When there is not ample space for a conventional approach, this process, which is the convergence of the mechanical world and the electronics world, results in the ability to design a flexible circuit along the contour of an existing, irregularly shaped structure.

View Story
Copyright © 2017 I-Connect007. All rights reserved.