Article Highlights
IMPACT Interview: Joe O’Neil, OAA Ventures
08/16/2017 | Patty Goldman, I-Connect007
Cycle Time Reduction Through W.O.R.C.
08/15/2017 | Steve Williams, The Right Approach Consulting LLC
Whelen Engineering, Two Years Later
08/14/2017 | Patty Goldman and Happy Holden
Compliance Management: The Defining Factor Between Success and Failure
08/11/2017 | Elmatica
IMPACT Interview: Tony Revier, Uyemura
08/11/2017 | Uyemura
PCB :: Associations

Latest Articles

IMPACT Interview: Joe O’Neil, OAA Ventures

At the recent IMPACT Washington D.C. 2017, I-Connect007 Managing Editor Patty Goldman caught up with Joe O’Neil of OAA Ventures to talk about the event. As a veteran of many IMPACT meetings, his was a good perspective of the event.

Stephen V. Chavez Talks Mil/Aero PCB Design

Stephen V. Chavez, CID+, is the lead PCB designer for the Electronic Systems Center division of UTC Aerospace Systems (UTAS), a military contractor that builds all manner of cutting-edge tools for the American warfigher. He’s been designing military and aerospace PCBs for decades, and he’s a veteran of the United States Marine Corps. I caught up with Steph and asked for his thoughts on designing PCBs for the military and aerospace markets.

IMPACT Interview: Fern Abrams, IPC

At the recent IMPACT Washington D.C. 2017 event, I-Connect007's Patty Goldman speaks with IPC's Fern Abrams to get the inside story on the meeting with EPA.

IMPACT Interview: Anaya Vardya, American Standard Circuits

I-Connect007's Patty Goldman spoke with Anaya Vardya, president and CEO of American Standard Circuits, a few days after the conclusion of IMPACT, especially wanted his views as a first-timer there.

PCB Designers Notebook: Embedding Components, Part 2

Technology and processes for embedding capacitor and inductor elements rely on several unique methodologies. Regarding providing capacitor functions, IPC-4821 defines two methodologies for forming capacitor elements within the PCB structure: laminate-based (copper-dielectric-copper) or planar process and non-laminate process using deposited dielectric materials.

IPC: Department of Labor Releases RFI to Seek Information on Overtime Regulations

This week, the Department of Labor (DOL) released a Request for Information (RFI) to gather additional feedback from the public on the overtime regulations, which define and delimit exemptions from the Fair Labor Standards Act’s minimum wage and overtime requirements for certain executive, administrative, professional, outside sales and other employees.

Review of the 2017 IPC Reliability Forum

IPC continues to lead our industry by example with their inaugural Reliability Forum, held in Chicago in April. The event was focused on manufacturing high-performance products and featured industry royalty from both a speaker and audience standpoint.

The Skills Gap – Meet People Where They Are!

A perennial concern in the U.S. electronics manufacturing industry is the lack of skilled talent in many parts of the country. According to a recent IPC member survey, most companies have a hard time recruiting qualified production workers, engineers, and other technical professionals.

Patty's Perspective: What Happens in Washington Doesn’t Stay in Washington—It Reaches All of Us

I went to my second IMPACT Washington, D.C. event this year (May 1–3) and, as much as I applauded last year’s event, this one far surpassed it—just ask anyone who was there. In this month’s issue, a special section on IMPACT backs that claim.

Mr. Laminate Tells All: PTFE is About to be Banned by IEC TC111

There, I said it. Technical Committee 111 of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is preparing to effectively ban PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) materials from electronics. As history goes, the electronics industry has focused on only two of the four halogens (bromine and chlorine) to be limited in order to be called “halogen-free” or more accurately “low-halogen.” But now, fluorine is being dragged down too, just because of its location in the periodic table.


Weiner’s World – June 2017

On the way back from Hong Kong last week I had the good fortune of meeting an officer of Allegro Microsystems and enjoyed a wide ranging discussion with him. One of the "take home" items was concern about an expanding shortage of rare earth metals used to make ICs for the burgeoning automotive sensor market. The second was how important the roles of partnering and consortia are in the rapidly advancing autonomous automotive electronic field.

Better Together: How HDP User Group Showcases the Industry’s Best Side

HDPUG is a non-profit trade organization comprised of members from top companies in the electronics industry, from materials suppliers and manufacturers, to OEMs and end users. Key activities include collaborating on issues facing multiple industries and bringing people together on projects who might not have met otherwise. Barry Matties met HDPUG’s European representative and project facilitator Alun Morgan at the recent EIPC Summer Conference to learn more about the group and current projects.

14th Electronic Circuits World Convention

The 14th Electronic Circuits World Convention (ECWC14) started in Seoul to the usual fanfare after the opening ceremonies of KPCA 2017. The ribbon-cutting ceremony was conducted by KPCA’s Jung Bong Hong and the representatives of the other WECC members: WECC Secretary General Rex Rozario; Jin Zhangi (CPCA); Alun Morgan (EIPC); Vikram Desai (Electronic Industries Association of India); Canice Chung (Hong Kong PCA); David Bergman (IPC); Kushal Patel (IPCA); Toshifumi Kobayashi (JPCA), and Rich Wu (TPCA).

President Donald Trump Launches Workforce Development Week

Earlier this week President Donald Trump announced “Workforce Development Week.” As such, President Trump spent the last four days promoting job creation and even signed executive order expanding apprenticeship programs.

Global Impact on European PCB Fabrication: EIPC Summer Conference 2017, Day 2

The second day saw the conference room full once more, the late networking session in the bar having resulted in no significant casualties, and I was pleased to accept the invitation to moderate the first session, on processes and materials for flexible PCBs.

Global Impact on European PCB Fabrication: EIPC Summer Conference 2017, Day 1

Electronics industry professionals from 13 countries, mainly from Europe and Scandinavia, others from the USA, but some from as far away as India and Japan, gathered in Meriden, the centre of England, for the EIPC Summer Conference.

Industry Knowledge—Preparing the Next Generation

Recruiting and retaining talent is becoming a monumental task in our industry. Look around at trade shows; there is a palpable decrease in the number of young people who are interested in engineering and/or manufacturing. With the advent of the IT age, the prospective workforce has moved on to the next natural step in the technological progression.

HDP User Group 2017 European Meeting Highlights Technology Progress

The conference facility at the offices of Oracle, in the royal burgh of Linlithgow in West Lothian, Scotland, was the venue for the 2017 European meeting of the High Density Packaging User Group. I was delighted and privileged to be invited once again to sit in on the open session, an intense programme of technical presentations and discussions, project reviews, status updates and new project proposals.

Ladle on Manufacturing: Testing Times Ahead

Bare board electrical test: For the most part, it does what it says on the tin. Current CAM software and test hardware means that in theory, it is a pretty simple exercise to make sure that a printed circuit matches the intended design. But are you getting the test you think you are?

Help Wanted With IMI’s Peter Bigelow

In preparation for this month’s topic, especially what companies in our industry are currently experiencing when it comes to finding and hiring the right people, I sought out Peter Bigelow, president and CEO of circuit board fabricator IMI Inc. We spoke in February at IPC APEX EXPO.


Deep Into Technology at Compunetics

There aren’t many printed circuit companies in my neck of the woods. There is one, however, that has always fascinated me, and that is Compunetics, in Monroeville, Pennsylvania, a suburb of Pittsburgh. Having worked with them on the electrophoretic photoresist, a PPG product, many years ago, it was great to stop by and catch up with CTO Tim Schmitt and Technical Applications Manager Jesse Ward, along with General Manager Burhan Capar, a relative newbie to the company.

San Diego IPC Designers Council Meeting Held at Del Mar Show

The Del Mar Electronics and Manufacturing Show is a long-time favorite among PCB professionals. What better place to hold a meeting of the San Diego Chapter of the IPC Designers Council? Each year, the San Diego Chapter of the Designers Council hosts their largest meeting of the year at the Del Mar show. This year, approximately 50 PCB designers and electronics professionals attended the lunch-and-learn meeting.

IMPACT 2017: Electronics Industry Leaders Meet with Members of Congress and Trump Administration on Capitol Hill

IPC places a high priority on making our presence known in the halls of government to educate our government officials on the policies that will strengthen the advanced manufacturing industry.

Innovating in the Technology of Stretchable PCBs

Express Circuits is a long-established PCB fabricator located in Coleshill, near Birmingham in the Midlands of England, specialising in quick-turn complex prototype and small- to medium-volume microvia multilayer and rigid-flex. With the benefit of associate companies focused on design and assembly, Express is recognised for its exemplary customer service and technical support, as well as for its innovative manufacturing solutions.

IMPACT Washington 2017 Just Around the Corner

IPC's Government Relations team has worked around-the-clock to ensure that IMPACT Washington D.C. 2017 is the best yet. During this two-and-a-half day event, executives from IPC-member companies will have the opportunity to speak with leaders in Congress and the Administration in support of our common priorities.

Capitol Connection: IMPACT Update—To CEOs on Why You Should Attend IMPACT Washington, D.C. 2017

Here at IPC, we place a high priority on making our presence known in the halls of government, because so many policy debates have a direct effect on the electronics manufacturing industry. IMPACT Washington, D.C. 2017 is a chance to join with fellow industry executives in advocating for better public policies for a stronger, more advanced manufacturing economy.

Mutracx Makes Green Operations Economically Viable

During IPC APEX EXPO, I sat down for an interview with with Jeroen de Groot, CEO of Mutracx. He detailed the company’s plans to install new equipment at a facility in Romania, and he explains why having a green manufacturing operation is not enough—it must also be economically feasible.

RTW IPC APEX EXPO: Sanjay Huprikar Lays Out Plans to Grow IPC Membership

Sanjay Huprikar, IPCs vice president of member success, discusses IPCs plans to expand membership around the world.

RTW IPC APEX: HDPUG's Jack Fisher Discusses Updates on Optoelectronics Project

The HDPUG Optoelectronics project set out to demonstrate that optical waveguides incorporated within a backplane could benefit the system's interconnect topology. HDPUG facilitator Jack Fisher explains that a demonstrator has now been built and is currently under test at a number of leading OEMs.

A Conversation with Gene Weiner

In a discussion following the PCB Executive Forum at IPC APEX EXPO in February, Gene Weiner opened up to Barry Matties and Patty Goldman on the state of the North American electronics industry supply chain and the importance of cooperative efforts up and down that supply chain.


Capitol Connection: Drumroll, Please…Announcing the IPC Government IMPACT Awardees

Government relations are essential to our industry as many of the policy debates taking place will have long-lasting impact on our industry. Tax and regulations reform, immigration, and environmental regulations are up for debate and it is time for our industry to take a seat at the table.

Mike Carano on the First PCB Executive Forum Held at IPC APEX EXPO 2017

When John Mitchell came on board as president of IPC, he decided to tap the members of the Raymond E. Pritchard Hall of Fame for suggestions and advice. So he established the IPC Ambassador Council and tasked them to create special programs for IPC conferences. It is this group of people who put together the recent PCB Executive Forum that was presented at IPC APEX EXPO 2017.

Ray Pritchard Looks Back at IPC’s Beginning and His Role in Getting it Started

I have known Ray Pritchard for a long time—as long as I’ve been involved with IPC, in fact. He directed the organization for 35 years before turning over the reins. One could say he grew up with the organization—or vice versa. Ray was always a bundle of energy and still is, still joking and warm, a great people person, and I am sure he had a little something to do with the spirit of camaraderie and cooperation that is the hallmark of the IPC we know today.

RTW IPC APEX EXPO: ELCINA Inducted as a Member of WECC

WECC, the World Electronics Circuits Council, brings together industry trade associations worldwide to address issues of global importance. Secretary General Rex Rozario introduces Paresh Vasani, Honorary Secretary of ELCINA, the electronics industry association representing 300 companies in India, newly inducted as a member of WECC, and they discuss the significance of the relationship in the light of rapidly accelerating growth of electronics manufacturing in India.

Capitol Connection: Direct Legislative Action—IMPACT Washington, D.C. 2017

This ties in to why IPC–Association Connecting Electronics Industries invests so much into our government relations efforts. We place a high priority on government relations because so many public policy debates have large impacts on our industry. Our members continue to value our advocacy efforts on issues such as taxes, regulations, immigration and the environment.

A New Power Design Methodology for PCB Designs

Advanced PCB design is an iterative process of analysis-fix-analysis. Historically, this process is very time-consuming, requiring analysis experts and PCB designers to work together to find and fix layout problems. This article describes a new PCB design methodology that allows a PCB designer to perform the power design without having to run expert-level analysis tools. This methodology provides the setup automation for advanced analysis without the need to understand every minute parameter, and can be completed in a few steps.

RTW IPC APEX EXPO: IPC Validation Services Update

Randy Cherry, IPC's Director of Validations Services speaks with Guest Editor Judy Warner. Randy gives an update on the QML and QPL programs, including updates on the newest QPL program for copper clad laminates. They also discuss the growing value of industry engagement with VS as the number of certified facilities increases.

The Power of Three: A Solder Mask Solution for North America

Technology and process developments in mature industries like the printed wiring board industry are not always easy. Many new products are evolutionary enhancements of existing processes. Often, these developments enhance the process and improve overall process control.

Rogers' John Ranieri Discusses 92ML Conductive Epoxy Materials for Power Electronics

John Ranieri, Business Development Manager for Rogers Corporation, sat down for an interview with me at IPC APEX EXPO in San Diego. He discussed Rogers’ 92ML™ series of thermally conductive epoxy materials, and some of the challenges facing technologists in the power electronics market.

Schmoll Talks Technology

Schmoll’s Thomas Kunz and I had a chat recently at the HKPCA show. In our short discussion, we covered several topics, including Schmoll’s approach to the U.S. market, their work in direct imaging, and the nature of their relationship with ink suppliers.


Weiner’s World—February 2017

IPC APEX EXPO 2017 was the best in five or more years. The 60th annual meeting drew a crowd. The meetings were good. The mood was upbeat. There were reports of new orders from Asia as well as the Americas, and news of increasing business from the show floor. IPC membership was up in all its regions to more than 4,000.

Exciting New Technology: Thermal Risk Management

Two years ago I entered into a collaboration with Dr. Johannes Adam, from Leimen Germany. Johannes has written a software simulation tool called Thermal Risk Management (TRM). We used it to look at the thermal characteristics of PCB traces under a variety of conditions, and it is hard for me to contain my excitement and enthusiasm for what it does and what we learned about traces using it. Our collaboration resulted in the publication of numerous articles and a book. In this article, I’ll talk about some of the capabilities of TRM that really caught my attention.

CPCA Moves into New Venue for 2017 Show

I-Connect007 China Editor Edy Yu recently interviewed Jin Zhang, CPCA Secretary General, via e-mail. They discussed the upcoming CPCA Show, scheduled for March 7-9, and some recent changes, including the move to a new venue for this year’s annual event.

RTW IPC APEX EXPO: APEX EXPO Wrap-up Roundtable

Publisher Barry Matties and Managing Editor Andy Shaughnessy join Bob Neves of Microtek Labs for a review of IPC APEX EXPO 2017 and a look at the state of the PCB industry.

Time-Lapse Video: The IPC APEX EXPO 2017 Show in Under Seven Minutes!

During IPC APEX EXPO 2017, we at I-Connect007 had our time-lapse camera running from setup to closing. The camera was positioned high in our studio, where we conducted our RealTimewith…IPC APEX EXPO video interviews, aimed down the main aisle.

Patty's Perspective: New Technology Heading our Way— Faster than Ever!

As an excellent introduction to this issue, IPC’s John Mitchell gives us a wonderful overview of what emerging technology is and what we need to do to keep up. One thing he emphasizes is a trained and competitive workforce. Indeed, in our recent hiring survey we learned that an overwhelming percentage of you are concerned about a shortage of skilled and qualified people. John’s column is a great call to action.

Real Time with...IPC: IPC Market Research Update

Sharon Starr updated everyone on the Market Research services, industry forecasting and research projects her group publishes. She also mentioned a "call to action" for a meeting tomorrow with IPC members, seeking input on needed metrics for their new Pulse of the Industry program she will be rolling out this year, which will be a "Industry Health Scorecard".

Real Time with...IPC 2017 Videos Now Available for Viewing

Over 70 video interviews from the IPC APEX EXPO 2017 show in San Diego, CA are now available for viewing. See the opening ceremony, hear from suppliers and others on their new products, learn more about the HDP Users Group. Don't miss the videos by IPC President John Mitchell and his staff.

EIPC 2017 Winter Conference Review of Day 2

Almost everyone made it back to the conference room for the start of the second day of the EIPC Winter Conference in Salzburg, even those who had enjoyed the late networking session into the early hours!

EIPC 2017 Winter Conference Review of Day 1

Themed to address the question: “The Future Needs of the Global Electronics Industry: What Solutions will Europe Provide?" the conference was a truly international event, attracting delegates from thirteen countries, to hear a well-chosen programme of twenty presentations in five sessions, introduced by EIPC Chairman Alun Morgan.


Now is the Time for Comprehensive Tax Reform

Tax policy is among the most basic tools of any government to accomplish its objectives. From the private sector perspective, taxes are one of largest expenses of any business. But despite being such an important topic for government and business, there is widespread agreement that the U.S. federal tax code is a mess.

CES 2017: Disruptive Technologies

Those of you that have read my previous columns covering CES 2017 know that at recent CES shows I have seen many drones, autonomous cars, IoT devices, robots, and many other items ranging from robots who stand in for your doctor to smart trash cans who tell you via Alexa, Google, or soon, Cortana on your own computer, that since you have thrown away two empty milk cartons in the last few days it may be time to order more milk; just say yes and consider it ordered.

On Location at HKPCA: IPC’s Mitchell and Carmichael on Asia, the Global Industry Outlook, and Trump

While in Shenzhen, China recently, with the PCB industry’s biggest trade show as a backdrop, Publisher Barry Matties sat down once again to interview IPC President John Mitchell and IPC Asia President Phil Carmichael. This time they discussed trends they’re seeing in the Asia-Pacific region and what a Trump presidency means to the industry.

Catching up with…Dr. Anthony Caputo

I met Dr. Anthony Caputo last year while helping one of my clients secure some strong engineering talent. Anthony had been reading my columns and reached out to me since he was looking for a new opportunity in a high-tech printed circuit board facility. Once I read his CV and saw his credentials, I jumped at that chance to help this talented young man.

TTM President Thomas Edman on the Global PCB Market, Technology, and More

The TTM and Viasystems merger put the PCB industry on notice last year when it created one of the biggest powerhouses in the world. At this year’s HKPCA and IPC show, Barry Matties met with TTM Technologies President and Chief Executive Officer, Thomas Edman to get his views on the market, technology, the culture of TTM and even the Trump effect.

Patty’s Perspective: Everything You Want to Know about Vias but Were Afraid to Ask

Regarding our survey on vias, almost 85% of our respondents said they used blind/buried vias. And since 15% of those answering were either suppliers or consultants, it seems that approximately 100% use the B/Bs. OK then, on to a tougher question. We then asked how often, and it turns out that “use” covers everything from rarely to pretty much all the time, with a definite undercurrent of “because we have to.”

Real Time with...HKPCA & IPC Show 2016 Slideshow - Day 2

The 2016 IPC Hand Soldering World Championship was held concurrently for the first time at the International Printed Circuit & APEX South China Fair (HKPCA and IPC Show 2016) in Shenzhen, China. View the slideshow here.

Real Time with...HKPCA & IPC Show 2016 Slideshow - Day 1

The International Printed Circuit & APEX South China Fair 2016, presented by HKPCA and IPC, kicked off this week in Shenzhen, China. The theme of this year’s event is “Global Wisdom Shaping the Future.”

Aismalibar on Markets, Materials, and the Increase in Copper Prices

As a European laminate provider specializing in insulated metal substrates and thermal management, Aismalibar is often put in the demanding position of catering to some of Europe’s toughest customers, including the automotive industry. Pete Starkey and Barry Matties caught up with Director General Eduardo Benmayor at the most recent Electronica trade show to learn more about the company and get his take on the current state of the IMS marketplace.

Mr. Laminate Tells All: The Certification of IPC-4101D Polyimide Base Materials: Buyer Beware

At the most recent IPC meeting held in Rosemont, Illinois, one of the hot topics of discussion at the Laminate and Prepreg Subcommittee was the three polyimide specification sheets. The header portion for the three polyimide-based copper-clad laminates and prepregs are shown in Figure 1, for easy comparison of polyimide grades.


HKPCA’s Daniel Chan on China’s PCB Manufacturing and Technology Landscape

Editor Edy Yu recently spoke with Daniel Chan, executive director of the Hong Kong Printed Circuit Association (HKPCA). Chan possesses more than 25 years of experience in global business management with strong leadership influencing suppliers and internal clients in business strategy and transformation.

Streamline Circuits: The Importance of Being a Sales-Driven Organization

I recently had the pleasure of catching up with Tom Doslak, senior VP of sales and marketing for Streamline Circuits. We discussed how the company got started, technologies that seem to be driving the marketplace, critical equipment for today’s PCB fabricator, and how being a customer-centered, sales-driven organization serves as the key to their success.

Catching Up (Literally) with Uyemura’s George Milad at SMTAI 2016

I managed to catch up with George Milad of Uyemura at the recent SMTA International conference, which wasn’t easy to do. But he did take a few minutes to fill me in on his schedule for the week and it sure was packed—with a tutorial, presentations and IPC committee meetings.

IPC’s President on IPC EDGE: Cutting Edge and Education

Chatting with IPC President John Mitchell is always a good time—he never fails to be upbeat and full of ideas, and his eagerness to fill us in on what’s happening with IPC was evident during our recent interview at the IPC Fall Committee Meetings, co-located with SMTAI in late September.

TTM SJ Hosts IPC Designers Council Meeting

The Silicon Valley Chapter of the IPC Designers Council was treated to a delicious barbecue lunch on October 13 at TTM’s San Jose facility. About 20 PCB designers and support professionals gathered for the tri-tip lunch-n-learn conference.

One World, One Industry: Six Leadership Lessons from 20 Years in the Electronics Industry

The orchestra conductor is an apt metaphor for the successful leader. Effective leadership often boils down to the ability to inspire others (the symphony) to their best work, while keeping and driving the overall vision of the organization (the musical score).

All About Flex: Specifying a Flexible Circuit

IPC has created a specification document, IPC 6013, which is referenced for many flex circuit applications. This commercial document, in combination with the CAD data and print, is used as the product specification. Most flexible circuitry fabricators’ internal quality standards are based on IPC 6013.

New Developments at MacDermid Enthone

One of the best parts of industry conferences and shows is the opportunity to meet new people and renew acquaintances. Another highly enjoyable part is learning what is going on within companies—especially those with which one has had a close association in the past.

Mentor Graphics’ PADS Platform Bridges Design and Manufacturing

At PCB West, Barry Matties spoke with Paul Musto about Mentor’s PADS environment and their introduction of scalable software tools to help design better boards, from the enterprise level down to the entry level and hobbyists. They also discussed the evolution of the design process infrastructure in North America vs. Asia, and what design engineers should focus on to increase their value.

Weiner’s World

This year’s TPCA (Taiwan Printed Circuits Association) show held October 26–28 seemed to have lighter attendance than last year. Robots were on display everywhere, with lot of loaders and unloaders as well as the multi-axis, multipurpose types.


Patty’s Perspective: Take Me to Your Leader

We must have touched a real hot button when we decided to do this issue on leadership. When we sent out our survey on the topic, we received a lot of responses, which we’ll review in a separate article, plus many of our regular columnists were inspired to write on the subject.

Let's Talk Testing: Don’t Reinvent the Wheel—Find an Expert!

Back in the day when I was an engineer fresh out of college, I quickly learned that experience is the solution to many problems. Now that being said, experience comes in many forms…it could be knowledge learned from a textbook, it could be an observatory comment jotted down in a notebook, it could be a conversation with a co-worker or colleague, or it could be an Internet search that finds a scholarly technical article, etc.

One World, One Industry: Voting—A Civic Duty and Industry Opportunity

On Tuesday, November 8, more than 240 million people in the United States will have the opportunity to go to the polls and vote, make their voices heard in government, and influence the direction of public policy for years to come. Much of the world is closely watching with interest in this major U.S. election.

2016 Election Forecast

Throughout this election cycle, candidates have offered many promises to boost the U.S. and global economy, as well as address other national priorities. As we inch closer to the finish line, it’s worth examining how the presidential and several congressional races could shape the future of policies affecting the manufacturing industry.

Happy's Essential Skills: Metrics and Dimensional Analysis

After 20 of my columns, readers probably realize that I am an analytical person. Thus, I dedicate this column to metrics—the method of measuring something. I mentioned the four levels of metrics in my June column "Producibility and Other Figures of Merit." I also introduced the five stages of metrics in the second part of the column "Design for Manufacturing and Assembly, Part 2." This column completes the discussion with a look at dimensionless quantities.
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