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I-Connect007 Editor's Choice: Five Must-Reads for the Week
10/30/2020 | Nolan Johnson, I-Connect007
Gardien on the Right Track With New ERP System
10/29/2020 | Andy Shaughnessy, Design007 Magazine
Real Time with… AltiumLive Europe: If You Don’t Know How It’s Made, How Can You Possibly Design It?
10/26/2020 | Pete Starkey, I-Connect007
EIPC Technical Snapshot: Automotive Technology
10/19/2020 | Pete Starkey, I-Connect007
I-Connect007 Editor's Choice: Five Must-Reads for the Week
10/16/2020 | Nolan Johnson, I-Connect007
PCB :: Suppliers
EIPC Technical Snapshot: Automotive Technology
Although current circumstances have forced the postponement of its live conferences, seminars, and workshops, EIPC continues to provide a platform for the exchange and dissemination of the latest knowledge and technical information to the European interconnection and packaging industry. Pete Starkey details how its current series of technical snapshots, delivered in a webinar format, address technology challenges facing the automotive, telecom, and high-speed sectors of the industry.
Real Time with… SMTAI 2020: Technical Conference Review
SMTAI 2020, which was converted to a virtual event, took place from September 28–30. I attend every year, but since there was no keynote in the virtual format, I went straight to the technical conference. This event covered a broad range of topics related to everything in assembly. Over 90 technical presentations are available, but this report covers just some of the sessions I attended.
Nano Dimension Appoints LM Instruments to Market PCB/Hi-PEDs 3D-Printers
Nano Dimension Ltd., a leading Additively Manufactured Electronics (AME)/PE (Printed Electronics) provider, has signed an agreement with LM Instruments, which will represent Nano Dimension in the Mid-Atlantic States by marketing its 3D-Fabrication Machines for High-Performance Electronic Devices (Hi-PEDs).
Book Excerpt: Thermal Management With Insulated Metal Substrates, Part 2
The following is an excerpt from the second half of Chapter 1 of "The Printed Circuit Designer's Guide to... Thermal Management With Insulated Metal Substrates," written by Ventec International Group’s Didier Mauve and Ian Mayoh. In this free eBook, the authors provide PCB designers with the essential information required to understand the thermal, electrical, and mechanical characteristics of insulated metal substrate laminates.
Rogers Corporation Keeps Materials Moving
The I-Connect007 editorial team spoke with Roger Tushingham of Rogers Corporation about the company’s current priorities with everything that’s been changing recently, including his perspective on the distributing and manufacturing trends he sees as a global supplier.
Ucamco Harnesses Power of Artificial Intelligence
In this video interview from the show, Luc Maesen, Ucamco director, and Technical Editor Pete Starkey discuss how AI has been applied to help automate the CAM/CAD process, resulting in the company's IamCam system. This platform enables intelligence-aided manufacturing designed to lower costs while achieving fewer errors and faster delivery.
DIS: It’s All About Alignment
Jesse Ziomek, VP of sales for DIS, updates Pete Starkey on the capability of the company to achieve ultimate accuracy in layer-to-layer registration, not just in rigid multilayers, but also in flex and rigid-flex builds. Jesse also comments on keeping technology exciting enough to attract young engineers into the industry.
With DIS, Accurate Registration is Everything
In this video interview from the show, Technical Editor Pete Starkey and Jesse Ziomek, VP of sales for DIS, discuss how the company achieves ultimate accuracy in layer-to-layer registration, not just in rigid multilayers, but also in flex and rigid-flex builds. Jesse also comments on keeping technology exciting enough to attract young engineers into the industry.
This Month in PCB007 Magazine: A Scorecard for Suppliers
Al Block and Naji Norder from National Instruments talk about the PCQR2 tool, what that entails, and how companies can use the data-driven analysis to validate the quality of suppliers and potentially save millions.
Institute of Circuit Technology Spring Seminar 2020
Back to Meriden, the nominal centre of England where the daffodils were blooming. A good crowd made it to the spring seminar that followed the Annual General Meeting of the Institute of Circuit Technology (ICT), with five specialist presentations and excellent opportunities to network with their peers in the industry. Pete Starkey shares his overview of the event.
2020 EIPC Winter Conference, Day 1
Pete Starkey recaps how the 2020 EIPC Winter Conference, held in mid-February, attracted around 90 delegates from a dozen European countries—as well as a few from North America—to an outstanding learning and networking experience for members of the PCB community. The theme of this year's event was: “The Needs for Next-Generation Electronic Devices and Changes in Fabrication Solutions for PCBs, PCBAs, Materials, and Technologies.”
Congratulations to Mike Carano! Dieter Bergman IPC Fellowship Award Recipient
Patty Goldman spoke with Mike Carano about being awarded the Dieter Bergman IPC Fellowship Award, what that means to him as someone who was inspired by Dieter, and after 40 years in the industry, what keeps him excited going forward. Talking with Mike, one can feel his enthusiasm for IPC and the industry, which is contagious.
Catching up With Midstate Electronics
Dan Beaulieu recently sat down with Susan Matteo, Joan Allen, and Gerri Wooten from Midstate Electronics’ sales team to discuss their company, how long they have been in business, the key ingredients to their longevity and success, and how they see the market today in general. Midstate offers everything from multilayer PCBs to flex and rigid-flex circuits and PCB assembly.
Rogers Continues to Grow and Adapt
In this video interview from the show, Guest Editor Judy Warner and Tony Mattingly, senior product manager at Rogers Corporation, discuss the state of materials at the company, as well as the Rogers innovation centers the company has opened recently.
Insulectro: Educating Designers About High-Speed Materials
In this video interview from the show, Ken Parent, Insulectro's VP of sales and product manager, speaks with Guest Editor Kelly Dack about the company's efforts to educate engineers and designers about materials and their options and availability. Insulectro has held a series of PCB design classes and plans to keep educating designers about these high-speed materials.
Ventec’s Materials are Enablers for 5G, Industry 4.0
In this video interview from the show, Technical Editor Pete Starkey and Ventec COO for Europe and the Americas Mark Goodwin discuss Ventec’s latest high-speed, low-loss, high-frequency materials as enablers for 5G and Industry 4.0.
IPC APEX EXPO 2020 Attendees Speak: Brian Wojtkiewicz
"It seems they are all pursuing digital imaging; whether it’s direct imaging exposure or inkjet solder mask, they’re all going that direction, and it’s not just the big customers; small customers are doing the same," said Taiyo's Brian Wojtkiewicz. "They’re investing money, which is good. New investment is what has been lacking for a couple of years."
Taiyo America Brings New Ideas to Solder Mask Development
During the show, Technical Editor Pete Starkey and Don Monn, Midwest regional sales director at Taiyo America, discuss the company’s progress with the establishment of inkjet solder mask as a production reality, now with OEM approvals. Monn also addresses the development of crack-resistant white solder mask and new screen-printable formulations with very high thermal conductivity.
Meet Sharon Cohen, I-Connect007 Columnist
Meet Sharon Cohen, one of our newest I-Connect007 columnists! Sharon’s columns will share Orbotech’s expert knowledge on how to maximize the value of manufacturing systems. Mr. Sharon Cohen is the president of Orbotech West, where he is responsible for the PCB division’s organization in North America and EMEA (Europe, Middle East, and Africa).
Burkle North America: New Equipment and ‘New Blood’ in the Industry
During the show, Guest Editor Dick Crowe and Kurt Palmer, president and CEO of Burkle North America, discuss Kurt's career history and responsibilities in his present role. Palmer also details the equipment that the company is exhibiting on the show floor, and the palpable excitement that veteran technologists feel this year seeing younger engineers and students attending IPC APEX EXPO 2020. There’s a lot of “new blood” in the industry, as Palmer explains.
Will Moisture Management Expand to the U.S. Market?
Rich Heimsch, Super Dry director, chats with Nolan Johnson about the growing demand for moisture management in North America versus its earlier adoption in Europe, and how moisture management fits into Industry 4.0 and the smart factory.
IPC APEX EXPO 2020 Attendees Speak: Sheryl Long
"It’s a great place to see our customers and other friendly faces," said Sheryl Long, global marketing communications manager for Rogers Corporation. "The traffic has been a little slow this year, but it’s a great place to meet everybody at one spot and to get together and talk about what’s going on in the industry.
IPC: Automotive Electronics Segment Exploding
Electronics are increasingly being used in the design of new vehicles, driving IPC activities in standards development to help the industry adapt to building electronics better for the automotive industry. At IPC APEX EXPO 2020 we saw an increase in automotive content throughout the show which also provided opportunities for automotive OEMs and Tier1 suppliers to network.
Gardien: Selling Test Equipment and Services
In this Real Time with... IPC interview, technology editor Pete Starkey speaks with Jason Posey, director of sales and service with Gardien. They discuss Gardien's range of flying probe testing and the introduction of AVI into the North American market.
American Standard Circuits: Strong Focus on Military and Aerospace
During IPC APEX EXPO 2020, Joe Fjelstad speaks with Anaya Vardya, president and CEO of American Standard Circuits. In this interview, Anaya shares a variety of recent business updates. He also highlights the company's flex technology and I-Connect007 eBooks on flex and rigid-flex fundamentals, as well as RF and microwave PCBs.
Upcoming IPC APEX EXPO Offers Sessions on 5G
Dave Hoover of TTM discusses the Sessions @ the Intersection set for IPC APEX EXPO 2020—specifically, the two-part session he will host around the topic of 5G and materials.
Residual/Free TBBPA in FR-4
Sergei Levchik describes how testing has shown that FR-4 printed circuit boards do not contain free or residual tetrabromobisohenol-A (TBBPA).
Nolan’s Notes: IPC APEX EXPO 2020 Preview
IPC APEX EXPO is here again. If you have followed our coverage in SMT007 and Design007, then you’re probably laser-focused on the upcoming show. We have been previewing IPC APEX EXPO all month, and we’re excited to pass that information along to you within these pages. Here’s what we learned.
Kurt Palmer Takes on New Role as Burkle America President
During productronica 2019, Barry Matties chatted with Kurt Palmer about his new role as president of Burkle America, the work they do with Schmoll Maschinen, and why customers in North America must continue to invest to keep up with the technology and be profitable.
EIPC Winter Conference: Business, Technology, and Community
Managing Editor Nolan Johnson recently spoke with Kristen Smit-Westerberg about the upcoming EIPC Winter Conference, February 13−14, 2020, in Rotterdam.
Four Reasons to Choose Polycapillary Optics for XRF Coatings Analysis
As electronic components continue to shrink and increase in complexity, metal finishes on these components need to be plated onto smaller features. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is a widely used technique for measuring coating thickness and material composition. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is a widely used technique for measuring coating thickness and material composition because it’s non-destructive, fast and straightforward to use.
Fresh Thinking on the Logistics of Laminate Distribution
Mark Goodwin, COO of Europe and the Americas for Ventec International Group, sits down with Barry Matties to explain his approach to supply chain management, efficient distribution, and maintaining definitive product identity at every stage.
Logistics Are Frank Lorentz’s Passion
Recently, Barry Matties had the chance to visit Ventec International Group’s German facility in Kirchheimbolanden (KIBO), where he met Frank Lorentz, Ventec’s general manager for the location. Logistics are clearly Frank’s passion. He lives and breathes it. If you spend any amount of time with him, that is abundantly clear. This interview with Frank was conducted after a tour of the KIBO site.
Ledia 6 Direct Imaging System Offers Enhanced Speed and Precision
Technical Editor Pete Starkey recently met with Ucamco’s Michel Van den heuvel, imaging product group director, to discuss the benefits of the Ledia 6 direct imaging system, which was introduced earlier this summer and features scan-alignment and improvements in registration and positioning accuracy.
How to Become a Certified IPC Trainer
The Blackfox Certified IPC Trainer (CIT) programs are best suited for experienced and skilled electronics technicians, engineers, and supervisors who have the will and passion to teach and train colleagues about the quality standards of IPC. They also provide successful candidates with a credential that confirms their knowledge and understanding of IPC quality systems.
A Walking Tour of Viking Test With Jake Kelly
In this video walking tour of the Viking Test booth at productronica 2019, Managing Director Jake Kelly walks us down the line of Viking's universal film stripper.
Pluritec Takes Industry 4.0 to the Next Level
Pete Starkey and Pluritec’s Nicola Doria, president and CEO, discuss how the structure of Pluritec has developed over the past few years, now including many respected brand names that are long familiar in the PCB fabrication segment. Doria also explains how the company is continuing its implementation of Industry 4.0 processes.
Conductivity Laminate for High-frequency Applications
Editor Pete Starkey and Vitali Judin discuss how Rogers Corporation has responded to demands for high thermal conductivity combined with low loss in high-power RF applications with the newly launched. The PTFE-based TC350 Plus is capable of handling temperatures above 125°C and draws upon Rogers’ long experience with the TC350 material line-up.
InduBond: Magnetic Induction Lamination
In this video interview, part of the productronica 2019 coverage, we spoke with Víctor Lázaro, R&D manager and technical director at Indubond. Víctor describes Indubond’s innovative methods for heating the boards to effect lamination through magnetic induction. Victor discusses the energy and operational efficiency that an induction method brings to the equipment: thermal profiles.
Future Trends in Flying Probe Testing
Peter Brandt, director of sales for Europe and Japan at atg, sits down with Pete Starkey and Barry Matties, gives his views on market requirements and testing technologies, and explains how flying probe testing is becoming the industry standard at all levels of production—and in many cases, the only practicable solution.
Market Drivers and ESI’s Ongoing Developments
During productronica 2019, the I-Connect007 Editorial Team met with some of the industry's top executives, managers, and engineers.
Book Review: The Printed Circuit Designer’s Guide to…Executing Complex PCBs
If you are serious about designing complex PCBs (most designs today are far from elementary) and even more serious about doing it right the first time, then this is the book for you. Loaded with guidelines for designing cutting-edge PCBs, this book is filled with real-world examples and tips, tricks, and techniques by some of Freedom CAD’s most experienced designers.
Multilayer Press Technology Using Magnetism to Produce Lamination Heat
A revolutionary concept in multilayer press technology has been developed that uses electromagnetic energy to heat the existing stainless-steel separator plates with a never-before dreamed-of accuracy and precision. The heating and cooling systems—embedded within a robust hydraulic press inside a vacuum chamber design—are controlled using a temperature feedback loop that guarantees perfect fidelity between the press recipe and the press result.
Solder Mask Tack Dry
As a general rule, the tack-dry temperature should be as low as possible; in other words, it should only be as high as necessary. If the temperature is too low, the evaporation rate for the solvent will be to slow, and the solder mask will not dry in a reasonable amount of time. If the temperature is too high, however, the dry time certainly will be excellent, but it could create a solder mask lock-in with repercussions by the developing time.
Why Does the PCB Industry Still Use Gerber?
Every so often, I hear technologists ask why so many PCB designers still use Gerber. That is a fair question. Ucamco has over 35 years of experience in developing and supporting cutting-edge software and hardware solutions for the global PCB industry. Our customers—small, medium, and large PCB fabricators—include the electronics industry’s leading companies, and many of them have been with us for over 30 years. We are dedicated to our industry and excellence in everything we do, which includes our custodianship of the Gerber format.
Communication, Part 5: Internet Impedance Calculators for Modeling
Bob Chandler of CA Design and Mark Thompson of Prototron Circuits address how new engineers use internet impedance calculators for modeling (e.g., formulas versus recipes) in Part 5 of this series. Do you use impedance calculators that you found on the internet? Read on!
Meet George Milad, I-Connect007 Columnist
Meet George Milad, one of our newest I-Connect007 columnists! George’s columns will cover PCB plating, IPC specifications, and more. George is the recipient of the 2009 IPC President’s Award, chairs the IPC Plating Committee, and is a permanent member of the IPC Technical Activities Executive Committee.
Communication, Part 3: Why Do Board Shops Ask So Many Questions?
In Part 3, Bob Chandler from CA Design and Mark Thompson from Prototron Circuits speak with Steve Williams about the importance of preparing, sending, and receiving comprehensive (and ideally, perfectly complete) design data packages. If you’ve ever wondered why the CAM department asks you so many questions, read on.
Communication, Part 2: Design Data Packages
The first part of this six-part series highlighted ways that PCB fabricators and designers can better communicate, starting with how to qualify a board shop. In Part 2, Bob Chandler and Mark Thompson talk about the importance of preparing, sending, and receiving comprehensive (and ideally, perfectly complete) design data packages.
New High-speed 3D Surface Imaging Technology in Electronics Manufacturing Applications
Line confocal sensors—and scanners based on them—are used in the imaging of surfaces, transparent materials, and multi-layered structures in various metrology and inspection applications on discrete parts, assemblies, webs, and other continuous products. Line confocal sensors operate at high speed and can be used to scan fast-moving surfaces in real-time as well as stationary product samples in the laboratory.
SMTAI 2019: Happy Holden’s On-the-Scene Report
Last week concluded the 2019 SMTAI conference in Rosemont, Illinois. Overall, I think the show was successful and covered all aspects of SMT processes.
The Institute of Circuit Technology Autumn Seminar
Meriden has been established as a popular Midlands venue for Institute of Circuit Technology (ICT) meetings. On September 19, a multitude of Fellows, Members, and Associates gathered for the Institute’s autumn seminar, which was organised and hosted by ICT Technical Director Bill Wilkie. The agenda included five informative technical presentations, describing current research and development on significant topics relevant to the industry.
Real Time with… SMTAI 2019 Slideshow
The SMTA International 2019 Conference and Exhibition closed last week on a high note. For those who were not able to attend the event, held at Stephens Convention Center in Rosemont, Illinois, the slideshow contains a selection of photos from the exhibition show floor as well as the conference.
Is It Time to Shake Up Materials Standards?
COO Mark Goodwin and Technology Ambassador Alun Morgan from Ventec International Group describes how they feel current standards do not sufficiently recognize the needs of end customers today with new processes and materials being shoehorned into old standards based on dated ideas of classifications, and how this makes choosing the right material challenging for designers.
SMTAI 2019: George Milad's SMTAI Paper and the IPC ENIG Specification Revision
George Milad, national accounts manager for technology at Uyemura, discusses his paper on changing processes to eliminate nickel corrosion that he presented at SMTAI. He also tells Nolan Johnson about the IPC ENIG specification revision. George is involved in the Revision B acceptance process and shared information on how to get involved with the specification committee as well.
EIPC Summer Conference 2019, Day 2
In this article, EIPC Chairman Alun Morgan provides the highlights of the second day of the EIPC 2019 Summer Conference, which was held in the beautiful city of Leoben in central Austria. He also talks about key points of the numerous technical presentation at the conference.
EIPC Summer Conference 2019, Day 1
The beautiful city of Leoben in central Austria provided the setting for the EIPC 2019 Summer Conference. In this article, EIPC Chairman Alun Morgan provides the highlights of the first day of the event, including a recap of the technical presentations.
NCAB 2019 Market Report: Competition Is Heating Up
Chris Nuttall, chief operations officer and VP of technology of NCAB Group, talks about the company's most recently released market report. Nolan Johnson and Nuttall discuss some of the market drivers and conditions the industry can expect to close out in 2019 as well as what to prepare for in 2020.
Selecting the Proper Flex Coverlayer Material
Coverlayers are polymer materials used to cover and protect the copper traces of the flex circuit product. There are a number of different options available for protecting the circuits, and they serve different design requirements in terms of cost, performance, and flexural endurance optimization. When specifying the choice, it is critical to call out not just the type of coverlayer material but also the thickness requirement. This can be very important in certain types of constructions, especially when a flex circuit will experience dynamic flexing during use.
Chemcut: Wet Processing Equipment for the Long Haul
Chemcut CEO and General Manager Rick Lies speaks about the growth he has seen in the marketplace over his 18 years in the industry, and how Chemcut has been able to remain competitive in the PCB and photochemical milling spaces. Jerry Reitz, Chemcut’s HES manager, also addresses the current shift towards zero-discharge facilities.
The Advantages of Non-sludge Acid Copper Products
Mike Wood, technical director with Cerambus Asia Pacific, discusses the acid copper product from Cerambus Technology Inc. that doesn't generate sludge during the plating process and operates at higher production output by using higher current density. He talks about why this is important for the state of the vertical continuous plating (VCP) market in Asia, and the trends he’s seeing in that space.
The State of Plating
Increasingly, PCB design technology utilises buried and blind via holes and plated via fill is also becoming more and more common. The buried and blind holes mean that the loading on the plating equipment is multiplied by the number of different inner layer connections. The same technology means that equipment needs to deal with thinner and thinner materials.
Pollution Prevention Techniques: Rinse Water Reduction
There are five general categories of common techniques for pollution prevention in a PCB fabrication facility: new processes to replace sources of pollution; extend the bath’s life; rinse water reduction; dragout reduction; and ventilation reduction. While this list is not all-inclusive, it provides an overview of the types of technologies used around the world that are important to consider. This article, examines rinse water reduction.
Innovative Electroplating Processes for IC Substrates
The decreasing chip scales and smaller line/spacing distances have created unique challenges for both the PCB industry and the semiconductor industry. This paper discusses innovative additive packages for direct-current copper electroplating specifically for IC substrates, which offer better trace profile and deliver via fill and through-hole plating. It also describes two electrolytic copper plating processes, the selection of which could be based on the via size and the dimple requirements of the application.
Nano Dimension Details New DragonFly LDM
Dan Feinberg talks with Nano Dimension CEO Amit Dror about the new DragonFly LDM 3D printer technology announced by the Israeli company on July 24, 2019, aimed at increasing machine uptime and moving forward from prototyping to higher production volumes.
Focusing on Surface Sensitivity for Reliability
At the recent IPC High-Reliability Forum and Microvia Summit, Customer Applications Scientist Elizabeth Kidd and Sales Engineer Alex Bien, both of BTG Labs, discuss with Andy Shaughnessy their presentation on the challenges of working with highly sensitive surfaces, such as the risk of contamination. They also talked about the various surface characterization techniques that BTG Labs uses to identify such contaminants.
Solder Mask Curing: UV Bump Overview
Ultraviolet (UV) bump, also called UV cure, is a processing step in which the solder mask pattern is irradiated with ultraviolet and infrared light. This step is performed with special equipment that is built as a continuous flow system, which consists of a conveyor belt and tubular UV lamps mounted above and below the belt. Read on to find out more about this process.
Interconnect Reliability Correlation With System Design and Transportation Stress
Interconnect reliability is very critical to ensure product performance at predefined shipping conditions and user environments. Plating thickness of the compliant pin and the damping mechanism of electronic system design are key success factors for this purpose. This paper discusses design variables—such as pin hard gold plating thickness, motherboard locking mechanism, and damping structure design—to ensure interconnect reliability.
There’s An Art to Plating
There's definitely an art to plating. Start with a generally planar substrate, then alternately put stuff on and take things off. Continue this in subtle variations until what you have is the stuff you want, where you want.
Development of Flexible Hybrid Electronics
This article will present a hybrid manufacturing process to manufacture FHE systems with a two-layer interconnect structure utilizing screen printing of silver conductive ink, filled microvias to connect ink traces at the different layers, and use of the traditional reflow process to attach the semiconductor chips to the printed substrates.
IPC Reliability Forum Wrap-up With Brook Sandy-Smith
I attended the recent IPC High-Reliability Forum and Microvia Summit in Baltimore, Maryland. The speakers and panelists focused on a variety of topics, but one issue that kept popping up was the failure of some microvias on military and aerospace PCBs. Fortunately, some smart technologists are focusing on determining the cause of these via failures. I asked Brook Sandy-Smith, IPC’s technical education program manager, to give us a quick wrap-up of this event.
The Impact of Inductance on Impedance of Decoupling Capacitors
This article discusses the impact of interconnection inductance on the impedance of the decoupling capacitor, which influences the power integrity of the PCB. The investigation is performed with 3DEM simulation by varying the trace length and height of stitching vias that connect the decoupling capacitor across the power rail and ground.
How to Feed Test Data Back to Engineering for Process Improvement
Some people think of the PCB manufacturing process as a black box: design data goes to the manufacturer (fabrication house), and magically, the finished PCB is produced. While it may have been like that in the past, in actuality, fabricating PCBs today is quite a ballet of processes.
Avoiding CAF Failures at the IPC High-reliability Forum
Foresite CEO Terry Munson recently spoke with Andy Shaughnessy during the IPC High-Reliability Forum and Microvia Summit in Baltimore about his presentation on the causes of conductive anodic filament (CAF), the dangers of resin starvation, and what advice he'd give to PCB designers to avoid those types of failures.
How Changing Cleaning Technologies Affect Reliability
At the recent IPC High-Reliability Forum and Microvia Summit, Andy Shaughnessy spoke with Michael Konrad, founder and president of Aqueous Technologies and a speaker and panelist at the event in Baltimore, Maryland. They discussed Konrad’s presentation and the recent proliferation of cleaning, from solely high-reliability products to Class 1 consumer products.
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