Article Highlights
The State-of-the-Art in PCB Pre-production Engineering
09/21/2017 | Pete Starkey, I-Connect007
The Value of Process Engineering in PCB Manufacturing
09/18/2017 | George Milad, Uyemura International Corporation
Ventec Shares Their Insights on the Laminate Market, Part II
09/13/2017 | Barry Matties, I-Connect007
Ventec Shares Their Insights on the Laminate Market, Part I
09/12/2017 | Barry Matties, I-Connect007
'Can Do' in CAM Outsourcing
09/11/2017 | Mehul J. Davé, Entelechy Global Inc.

Latest Articles

The State-of-the-Art in PCB Pre-production Engineering

If there’s one benefit of old age, it’s being able to remember the introduction to our industry of technologies that may be taken for granted by the present generation, but were revolutionary at the time. I can recall the history of Ucamco as far back as the late 1980s when, as one of the very early adopters of the DISC laser plotter and its associated electronic PCB front-end tooling system, our company gained entry to a spectacular new world of pre-production engineering capability.

The Value of Process Engineering in PCB Manufacturing

The PCB manufacturing cycle involves a series of interdependent processes starting from raw material and ending with the finished product. Successful PCB manufacturing shops coordinate, control and constantly upgrade their processes to meet the ever-changing market demands.

Ventec Shares Their Insights on the Laminate Market, Part II

The discussion on laminates and markets with Ventec’s Mark Goodwin continues as he talks about the importance of service, where Ventec is headed, and offers some advice on partnering with your supplier.

Ventec Shares Their Insights on the Laminate Market, Part I

I-Connect007’s Barry Matties sat down with the COO of Ventec USA/Europe, Mark Goodwin, to discuss the laminate market as a whole, the market segments behind that growth, and how Ventec has positioned itself in the thermal management space.

'Can Do' in CAM Outsourcing

Time-to-market has been the mantra for every successful technology company. The best among them have strong and integrated supply chains that march to the drum of the OEMs and EMS providers that bring that technology to market. A big part of that success, especially in North America and Europe, is the ability for PCB manufacturers to turn around complex PCBs very quickly. The hallmark of PCB production in these higher-tech, higher-cost regions is flexibility and responsiveness.

High-Throw DC Acid Copper Formulation for Vertical Continuous Electroplating Processes

The electronics industry has grown immensely over the last few decades owing to the rapid growth of consumer electronics in the modern world. New formulations are essential to fit the needs of manufacturing printed circuit boards and semiconductors.

Weiner’s World—August 2017

IPC is planning to hold a special meeting on automotive electronics for senior executives during IPC APEX EXPO 2019. The meeting will be planned and produced by the IPC Ambassador Council. Its presentations will feature senior members of the entire automotive electronics supply chain.

Hamed El-Abd: A New Beginning, Part 2

In Part 2 of this interview with Hamed El-Abd, Barry Matties continues the conversation as Hamed recalls witnessing the growth of China through the past 30 years. We also learn what Hamed plans to do in his retirement and it doesn't involve being static!

Hamed El-Abd: A New Beginning, Part 1

While in China recently, Barry Matties joined longtime I-Connect007 friend and contributor Hamed El-Abd of WKK to congratulate him on his upcoming retirement. They reflected on his time spent in the industry, specifically in China, how far it’s come, and where it might be headed next.

Laser Patterning & Metallization to Reduce Process Steps for PCB Manufacturing

This paper details a new methodology for the plating of conductive features onto glass dielectrics. A laser is used to ablate material from a glass substrate in the desired pattern, and copper is “seeded” into these features using laser-induced forward transfer of a copper foil.


IMPACT Interview: Joe O’Neil, OAA Ventures

At the recent IMPACT Washington D.C. 2017, I-Connect007 Managing Editor Patty Goldman caught up with Joe O’Neil of OAA Ventures to talk about the event. As a veteran of many IMPACT meetings, his was a good perspective of the event.

Cycle Time Reduction Through W.O.R.C.

Lean, theory of constraints (ToC), quick response manufacturing (QRM), cross-training, and staticstical process control (SPC) are powerful, tried and true methodologies for process improvement. However, these tools are rooted in high-volume manufacturing environments and don’t always play nice in a high-mix, low volume (HMLV) operation. The new W.O.R.C. manufacturing strategy was specifically developed to overcome these shortcomings while capitalizing on their strengths.

Whelen Engineering, Two Years Later

If you know anything about this unusual (and extremely private) company, you probably read it right here at I-Connect007. Whelan Engineering’s truly unique PCB manufacturing operation is the result of a company initiative to bring their PCB needs back into the States—and do so at a cost savings. It has been quite a success, largely due to the efforts of brainchild Alex Stepinski, now VP−PCB at Whelen. The company is still in the thick of manufacture, includingan expansion of the PCB facility.

Compliance Management: The Defining Factor Between Success and Failure

Compliance management in the defense industry can be the defining factor between financial success and costly mistakes. This short article highlights some of the risks and implications of failing to comply with U.S. Defense export and import regulations.

IMPACT Interview: Tony Revier, Uyemura

One of the best parts of IMPACT for me is meeting and getting to know people in our industry that I haven’t met before. While hors d’oeuvres were coming around before the Tuesday evening awards dinner, I found a quiet corner to talk with Uyemura USA President and CEO Tony Revier.

Patty's Perspective: How do You Define Process Step Elimination and Automation?

This month, we can call our theme PSE&A—a fancy acronym for process step elimination and automation. Sounds straightforward, but what exactly do we mean by “process step elimination?” Does it refer to shortening the numerous steps involved in making a printed circuit board? There sure are a lot of them, but they all must be necessary—or why would we have them?

Catching up with American Standard Circuits’ Joe Nickerson

Dan Beaulieu had the chance recently to sit down with Camtech Technologies founder and President Joe Nickerson, now the newly appointed American Standard Circuits’ VP of sales, to discuss Camtech Technologies and his new role with American Standard Circuits. It was an interesting talk.

IMPACT Interview: Fern Abrams, IPC

At the recent IMPACT Washington D.C. 2017 event, I-Connect007's Patty Goldman speaks with IPC's Fern Abrams to get the inside story on the meeting with EPA.

IMPACT Interview: Anaya Vardya, American Standard Circuits

I-Connect007's Patty Goldman spoke with Anaya Vardya, president and CEO of American Standard Circuits, a few days after the conclusion of IMPACT, especially wanted his views as a first-timer there.

Victory Giant Technology: The Qualified Forerunner of PCB Smart Factories

The topic of the July issue of PCB007’s China Online Magazine is “Automatic PCB Factories,” focusing on the pressures of cost, delivery time and process, and the irreversible trend toward automated PCB factories. Centering on this theme, we interviewed Andy Zhou, COO of Victory Giant Technology (HuiZhou) Co. Ltd., the first domestic PCB manufacturer who carries out large-scale implementation of intellectualization throughout the factory.


Catching up with Prototron Circuits Tucson GM Kim O’Neil

This has been an exciting year for Prototron, which has achieved Mil-PRF-31032 and gone into the flex business. Most recently, Prototron received word that they had achieved their AS9100 Rev D, which made me want to check in with Kim O'Neil and find out more.

Strategies for Compliance with DoD Regulations Including ITAR and DFARS

ITAR is usually the topic when compliance with DoD regulations is discussed. But what about DFARS? This article will examine strategies one can implement to ensure that one is compliant with all DoD regulations, by analyzing internal and external factors in relation to procurement and compliance, and by asking the vital questions: what, how, where and to whom?

The Speed of Nouya: Interview with Bao Xinyang of Shanghai Nanya

The theme of the June issue of PCB007 China Magazine is "High-Speed Materials." As is becoming more widely understood, domestic material supply is the only way for China’s high-frequency, high-speed circuit board industry to grow.

IPC: Department of Labor Releases RFI to Seek Information on Overtime Regulations

This week, the Department of Labor (DOL) released a Request for Information (RFI) to gather additional feedback from the public on the overtime regulations, which define and delimit exemptions from the Fair Labor Standards Act’s minimum wage and overtime requirements for certain executive, administrative, professional, outside sales and other employees.

IMPACT Interview: Shane Whiteside, Summit Interconnect

During Tuesday night’s dinner at IMPACT Washington, D.C. 2017, I-Connect007's Patty Goldman had a chance to talk with Shane Whiteside, Summit Interconnect’s president and CEO.

A Conversation with New Isola Chief Revenue Officer Michael White

In a recent conference call with Isola’s new Chief Revenue Officer Michael White, I-Connect007 Publisher Barry Matties, and Managing Editor Patty Goldman gained a deeper understanding of the internal reorganization happening right now with Isola and Mike’s plans for Isola’s marketing team.

Punching Out! Mid-2017 Report on the State of the N.A. PCB M&A Market

One of the most popular questions we receive concerns the market for M&A. Here is our take on the current market for PCB shops in North America. In general, the PCB market in North America is not growing, which means that to grow, shops either must take market share from others, or grow through acquisitions.

ECWC 14 Wrap-Up with Tim Lee and Happy Holden

Minsu (Tim) Lee is the secretariat of the ECWC 14 Worldwide Printed Circuit Conference, which recently concluded in Seoul, South Korea. Tim is also the program manager of the Korean Printed Circuit Association. We had a few minutes together after the conference ended to review the week’s events and the Korean PCB industry. Tim also focused on the ongoing situation with North Korea, which resulted in many Chinese paper contributors being denied visas for ECWC 14.

High-Frequency, High-Speed: an Opportunity for China CCLs to Lead

As a leading Chinese CCL manufacturer, Shengyi Technology has invested 250 million RMB in 2016, for the new Jiangsu Shengyi Special PCB Co. Ltd. facility, which will make high-frequency, high-speed CCL product. We invited Lin Xia, senior marketing director of Guangdong Shengyi Technology Co. Ltd., and assistant general manager of Suzhou Shengyi Sci-Tech Co. Ltd. He will be focusing on why high-frequency high-speed CCL is a good opportunity for China manufacturers to become a worldwide leader in this arena.

The Sales Survival Handbook: Cold Calls, Commissions, and Caffeine Addiction—The Real Truth About Life in Sales

Imagine a sales book written by Jerry Seinfeld and you’ll get a good idea of what this book is like. Filled with all kinds of valuable advice, including everything from cold calling to handling rejection, the author uses humor to make us laugh at ourselves while learning how to be better salespeople.


Review of the 2017 IPC Reliability Forum

IPC continues to lead our industry by example with their inaugural Reliability Forum, held in Chicago in April. The event was focused on manufacturing high-performance products and featured industry royalty from both a speaker and audience standpoint.

The Skills Gap – Meet People Where They Are!

A perennial concern in the U.S. electronics manufacturing industry is the lack of skilled talent in many parts of the country. According to a recent IPC member survey, most companies have a hard time recruiting qualified production workers, engineers, and other technical professionals.

Patty's Perspective: What Happens in Washington Doesn’t Stay in Washington—It Reaches All of Us

I went to my second IMPACT Washington, D.C. event this year (May 1–3) and, as much as I applauded last year’s event, this one far surpassed it—just ask anyone who was there. In this month’s issue, a special section on IMPACT backs that claim.

Mr. Laminate Tells All: PTFE is About to be Banned by IEC TC111

There, I said it. Technical Committee 111 of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is preparing to effectively ban PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) materials from electronics. As history goes, the electronics industry has focused on only two of the four halogens (bromine and chlorine) to be limited in order to be called “halogen-free” or more accurately “low-halogen.” But now, fluorine is being dragged down too, just because of its location in the periodic table.

I-Connect Survey on Process Step Elimination: What is More Important for Productivity?

Is utilizing the best technology out there the most important factor in improving productivity? Or is it automating certain, if not all, processes in your production? What about employee morale, what is its impact on the overall productivity of your line?

Megasonic Acoustic Surface Treatment Process for Enhanced Copper Electrodeposition in Via Interconnects

A printed circuit board is populated with a multitude of electro-mechanical components plus various active and passive devices such as transistors, capacitors, inductors and resistors, which enable the functionality and assembly of the PCB. Increasing the density of the components on the surface of a board enables greater functionality and use.

I-Connect Survey on Process Step Elimination: Cycle Time Spent on Final Inspection

In our recent survey on process step elimination for the upcoming issue of The PCB Magazine, one of the questions asked was the percentage of total cycle time spent on final inspection. Around half of the respondents answered they only spend generally between 1% and 5% of their total cycle time doing final inspection of their products.

Designing with Ultra-Thin Flexible Printed Circuit Boards

Designing with flexible PCBs is not much different from doing the same with rigid boards, except that the designer must account for the mechanical complexity associated with flex circuits. For instance, a flexible PCB can tear if flexed beyond its capability during installation. Therefore, it is very important to create a mechanical model of the PCB and test it for a proper fit, before taking up the electrical design.

Weiner’s World – June 2017

On the way back from Hong Kong last week I had the good fortune of meeting an officer of Allegro Microsystems and enjoyed a wide ranging discussion with him. One of the "take home" items was concern about an expanding shortage of rare earth metals used to make ICs for the burgeoning automotive sensor market. The second was how important the roles of partnering and consortia are in the rapidly advancing autonomous automotive electronic field.

Embedding Components, Part 1

The printed circuit has traditionally served as the platform for mounting and interconnecting active and passive components on the outer surfaces. Companies attempting to improve functionality and minimize space are now considering embedding a broad range of these components within the circuit structure.


Book Recommendation: Upside—Profiting from the Profound Demographic Shifts Ahead

If you want to know what is going to happen in the future, you can forget the crystal ball and the Tarot cards because all you need is this new book by generational researcher Kenneth Gronbach. This book is readable and interesting, despite the sound of the subject matter, which sounded as dry as the Arizona desert.

Rex Rozario, OBE, Wins Two Awards in Two Weeks

During their recent summer conference, the European Institute of Printed Circuits (EIPC) presented Rex Rozario with its distinguished Honourary Fellowship of the Institute Creditation for his contributions to the world electronics interconnection industry. Then at the Devon County Show, Rozario received the Pride of Devon Award for his contributions to Devon businesses and local radio.

Thin Film NiP Embedded Resistors in Heater Applications

There has been a growing adoption of NiP thin film resistors as heater elements from a diverse group of users including those in the aerospace, defense, high-end computing and the volume consumer electronics market. A novel application has now grown from the validation and reliability testing perspective. Using embedded resistors as heaters to do high-temperature or burn-in testing eliminates the need for thermal chambers.

The Significance of the PCB in the Value Chain of the European EMS Industry

At SMT Nuremberg, Pete Starkey meets with Dieter Weiss, who comments upon the significance of the PCB in the value chain of the European EMS industry, and looks to a future where we embrace an open-minded attitude and a willingness to work together.

A Brief Tutorial on Embedded Capacitors

Compunetics has been operating in the embedded components market for more than 20 years. Initially driven by their parent company’s need for high layer-count, high-density embedded capacitance cards for their OEM product offerings, technology and processes were developed which are mature and reliable.

A Twist on Printed Electronics: Printing on 3D Shapes

Barry Matties speaks with Optomec’s Pascal Pierra about their LENS printer systems and Aerosol Jet technology, which allows manufacturers to print applications like sensors and antennas on 3D objects. The process is significantly faster and greener than competing technologies.

Book Recommendation: The Inspiration Code—How the Best Leaders Energize People Every Day

Regardless of who you are, what you have done, where you have been, or where you are in your life journey, this book can help you to be inspirational. Not all of us are inspirational by nature; most of us are just regular people who have led regular lives. For the most part, we have done nothing dramatic enough to be inspirational just by our very existence.

Better Together: How HDP User Group Showcases the Industry’s Best Side

HDPUG is a non-profit trade organization comprised of members from top companies in the electronics industry, from materials suppliers and manufacturers, to OEMs and end users. Key activities include collaborating on issues facing multiple industries and bringing people together on projects who might not have met otherwise. Barry Matties met HDPUG’s European representative and project facilitator Alun Morgan at the recent EIPC Summer Conference to learn more about the group and current projects.

Embedding Active and Passive Components in Organic PCBs for More Reliability and Miniaturization

Hofmann Leiterplatten GmbH has developed a wide range of products in the last 25 years. New manufacturing know-how has been developed in fabricating organic PCB with embedded devices. A special name, AML (active multilayer), was created to differentiate the surface mount devices (SMD) and the device embedded technology (DET) PCBs. Manufacturing processes that are not typical for standard PCB fabrication shops has been developed.

14th Electronic Circuits World Convention

The 14th Electronic Circuits World Convention (ECWC14) started in Seoul to the usual fanfare after the opening ceremonies of KPCA 2017. The ribbon-cutting ceremony was conducted by KPCA’s Jung Bong Hong and the representatives of the other WECC members: WECC Secretary General Rex Rozario; Jin Zhangi (CPCA); Alun Morgan (EIPC); Vikram Desai (Electronic Industries Association of India); Canice Chung (Hong Kong PCA); David Bergman (IPC); Kushal Patel (IPCA); Toshifumi Kobayashi (JPCA), and Rich Wu (TPCA).


Happy Holden Second Recipient of I-Connect007 'Good for the Industry' Award

Our second 'Good for the Industry' award has been presented to Happy Holden. After working with Happy for a number of years it is clear to see that he is dedicated to improving the industry. He has a long history in the PCB industry, starting off with HP in the '70s. Not only did he develop HDI, but he then wrote the HDI Handbook, which is provided to readers at no charge.

President Donald Trump Launches Workforce Development Week

Earlier this week President Donald Trump announced “Workforce Development Week.” As such, President Trump spent the last four days promoting job creation and even signed executive order expanding apprenticeship programs.

Mitch Altman Discusses Bringing Youth into the PCB industry

Publisher Barry Matties is joined by Mitch Altman, creator of TV-B-Gone, a device that can turn off TVs in public, and co-founder of Noisebridge, an educational hackerspace based in San Francisco. In this interview, they discuss the importance of bringing youth into the PCB industry and how Noisebridge has inspired people of all ages to get started creating their own electronics.

Global Impact on European PCB Fabrication: EIPC Summer Conference 2017, Day 2

The second day saw the conference room full once more, the late networking session in the bar having resulted in no significant casualties, and I was pleased to accept the invitation to moderate the first session, on processes and materials for flexible PCBs.

Global Impact on European PCB Fabrication: EIPC Summer Conference 2017, Day 1

Electronics industry professionals from 13 countries, mainly from Europe and Scandinavia, others from the USA, but some from as far away as India and Japan, gathered in Meriden, the centre of England, for the EIPC Summer Conference.

Embedded Technology: It’s All Around Us

In the early ‘80s, the PCB company I worked for was testing some of the first material for buried resistors. I can’t recall what customer it was for, or how far along the project got, but over the years it seemed like the technology was slow to be adopted and perhaps ahead of its time.

Walt Custer’s Market Report

At the recent EIPC Conference, Walt Custer delivered his annual report detailing the trends he’s been seeing in the electronics industry for 2016 and into the first quarter of 2017. Barry Matties sat down with Walt to discuss his findings, including his forecast for the upcoming year. Also discussed are Walt’s prognosis for the market segments with the most promise and those that cause him concern.

Industry Knowledge—Preparing the Next Generation

Recruiting and retaining talent is becoming a monumental task in our industry. Look around at trade shows; there is a palpable decrease in the number of young people who are interested in engineering and/or manufacturing. With the advent of the IT age, the prospective workforce has moved on to the next natural step in the technological progression.

A Conversation with an Industry Twenty-Something

At a recent SMTA Expo, I met with Matt Hammesfahr, a salesperson with Amitron. Matt is young, by our industry standards—in his midtwenties. Just a few years out of college, Matt holds a business degree and is already a top salesman with the company. Here’s one of those twenty-somethings we keep saying we want to attract to our industry. How did this happen? I had to get the story.

How to Find –and Retain– the Right People for the Right Jobs

I sat down recently with Rebecca Brennan, director of human resources, and Aimee Miller, director of corporate communications for Compunetics and Compunetix. I already knew a little bit about their programs, having spent time at Compunetics in past years. I was looking forward to learning more about their methods.


HDP User Group 2017 European Meeting Highlights Technology Progress

The conference facility at the offices of Oracle, in the royal burgh of Linlithgow in West Lothian, Scotland, was the venue for the 2017 European meeting of the High Density Packaging User Group. I was delighted and privileged to be invited once again to sit in on the open session, an intense programme of technical presentations and discussions, project reviews, status updates and new project proposals.

Weiner’s World—May 2017

China’s central bank is effectively anchoring the yuan to the dollar, a policy twist that has helped stabilize the currency in a year of political transition and market jitters about China’s economic management. The yuan weakened more than 6% against the dollar in 2016; this year, it is up roughly 1%, and the expectation that the currency will fluctuate—a gauge known as implied volatility—is around its lowest in nearly two years.

David Dibble on the Hiring Process: Getting the Most From Systems Excellence

If this is the first time you’ve heard the name David Dibble, or his company, Dibble Leaders, then you’re in for a treat. David is one of our industry’s foremost thought leaders when it comes to systems optimization and leadership development. He has worked with many companies, both in our industry and in the medical field. From starting his own PCB company and growing it into a successful firm, David has a record of success.

The Sum of All Parts: Recruiting and Retaining Young Talent

Recruiting and retaining talent is becoming a monumental task in our industry. Look around at trade shows; there is a palpable decrease in the number of young people who are interested in engineering and/or manufacturing. With the advent of the IT age, the prospective workforce has moved on to the next natural step in the technological progression.

Innovator Bob Tarzwell Retires From PCB Industry to Focus on New Career in Art

I have known Bob Tarzwell for more than 18 years, since he first called me looking for some help with his company. His first words to me were, “Hi, my name is Bob Tarzwell and I own a shop in Carleton Place, Ontario. I need your help."

Ladle on Manufacturing: Testing Times Ahead

Bare board electrical test: For the most part, it does what it says on the tin. Current CAM software and test hardware means that in theory, it is a pretty simple exercise to make sure that a printed circuit matches the intended design. But are you getting the test you think you are?

Growth Ahead for Flexible Hybrid Electronics Industry

According to Zion Research, “global demand for the flexible electronics market was valued at $5.13B in 2015 and is expected to generate revenue of $16.5B by 2021, growing at a CAGR of slightly above 21% between 2016 and 2021.” Key elements of the market, in the view of most analysts, include flex displays, sensors, batteries, and memory.

Help Wanted With IMI’s Peter Bigelow

In preparation for this month’s topic, especially what companies in our industry are currently experiencing when it comes to finding and hiring the right people, I sought out Peter Bigelow, president and CEO of circuit board fabricator IMI Inc. We spoke in February at IPC APEX EXPO.

Deep Into Technology at Compunetics

There aren’t many printed circuit companies in my neck of the woods. There is one, however, that has always fascinated me, and that is Compunetics, in Monroeville, Pennsylvania, a suburb of Pittsburgh. Having worked with them on the electrophoretic photoresist, a PPG product, many years ago, it was great to stop by and catch up with CTO Tim Schmitt and Technical Applications Manager Jesse Ward, along with General Manager Burhan Capar, a relative newbie to the company.

Book Recommendation: You’ve Got 8 Seconds—Communication Secrets for a Distracted World

So, you’ve worked hard to get that appointment, and it has paid off. There you are sitting directly in front of “the man”—the guy you have been killing yourself to see for many months.


Rockwell Collins’ Doug Pauls Discusses Volunteering, Mentoring and Their Road Show

I was happy to see Rockwell Collins’ Doug Pauls receive IPC’s Raymond E. Pritchard Hall of Fame award at IPC APEX EXPO, well-deserved for him, and I wanted to chat with him about it. As with so many conversations at the conference this year, the talk quickly turned to inspiring interested young people in our “graying” industry. We also discussed the nature of volunteering and what we get out of it.

Ding Cheng of BYD Electronic: Embracing the FPC Factory Model of the Future

The topic of the third issue of PCB007 China Magazine is "The Wide World of Flex." Around this theme, we asked one of the leaders of China's FPC industry, Ding Cheng, general manager of the FPC Division of Shenzhen BYD Electronic Parts Company, to share his perspective about trends in flex, and where he thinks that market is headed in the future.

Executive Agent for PCB and Electronic Interconnect Technology PrCB Trust Accreditation

The DoD mandate for trust in the PrCB supply chain is mirrored in DoDI 5200.44, which states: “Employ protections that manage risk in the supply chain for components or subcomponent products and services (e.g., integrated circuits, FPGAs, PrCBs) when they are identifiable (to the supplier) as having a DoD end-use.” In response to congressional and DoD directives, the PrCB EA proposed pursuing a trust accreditation program for PrCB suppliers.

Help Wanted—and How!

It seems that I am extra-sensitive to topics in the news that coincide with an upcoming magazine topic—I see headlines in newspapers, suddenly the subject comes up in conversations, in email, and even in other media. And I think, is it just me or is everyone talking about this at the same time?

Weiner’s World—April 2017

China’s economy accelerated for a second straight quarter as investment picked up, retail sales rebounded, and factory output accelerated in March. Gross domestic product increased 6.9% in the first quarter from a year earlier, compared with a 6.8% median estimate in a Bloomberg survey.
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